Runners, joggers, and walkers seem to speak a different language. Here are definitions for some of the words and phrases that are used.
Training during which your body gets the oxygen that it needs. This usually includes all running except sprinting and possibly 5K races.
Training during which your body does not get the oxygen it needs. This usually involves sprinting and possibly 5K races.
Using minor city or town streets or country roads instead of major traffic streets. Back roads have less smog from exhaust fumes and fewer traffic lights, and, perhaps, more interesting scenery.
Cadence is the number of times a given foot (either left or right) strikes the ground. Cadence is half the stride rate.
Eating extra carbohydrates before a race in an attempt to put more energy into your cells. Typically, runners eat a pasta dinner the night before a race. Some runners recommend milder carbo loading that is spread over several days.
"Swedish, speed play : fart, running, speed (from fara, to go, move, from Old Norse". I like that definition, speed play. Speed: training to run faster. Play: having fun doing it.
Fast Twitch/Slow Twitch
The two types of muscle fibers. For example, chickens have light meat (fast twitch) in their breasts, and they can flap their wings quite fast for short periods of time. They have dark meat (slow twitch) in their legs, and they can walk slowly around for long periods of time. Sprinters usually have fast twitch, and marathoners usually have slow twitch fibers. Of course, some runners have mixtures of the two fibers.
The way that your foot hits the ground. Some runners, joggers, and walkers hit the ground with their heel. Others hit the ground with the mid or flat portion of their foot, and others hit the ground with their toe.
One of the principles of running is to allow at least 48 hours, the time your body needs to recover, between runs that cause heavy stress. The 48 hours encompasses two days, and that time is known as "heavy/light" and those terms refer to the stress applied to your body not to your effort in doing the run. The day after the heavy run could include a run of a shorter distance, a run at a slower speed, combinations of the two, or a day with no running.
Running up and down hills to increase your ability to run hills and to increase your body-strength.
A burst of speed, usually a sprint, at the end of a race or run.
Listen to your Body
Observing how your body responds to your training. Are you feeling energetic, tired during and after a run? Are your muscles sore and/or stiff? Have you come down with a cold when you usually don't have a cold?
Long Slow Distance or LSD
Running at a comfortable pace at which you can carry on a conversation with a running buddy. You aren't huffing and puffing during and after the run. LSD is used to build endurance for long distances.
Running a continuous path that returns to your starting point without doubling back on itself. A school track is a common example of a loop. When I lived in Massachusetts, I would run loops around small lakes, and I ran to the next town and back via a different path giving a big loop.
It is possible to have Out/Back segments in loops, and loop segments in an out/back paths.
A run or a race in which the last half is run faster than the first half.
Running from your starting point to your destination and then returning to your starting point via the same path. "Out" to the destination and "Back" via the same path.
If a runner overstrides, he or she is taking abnormally large steps. Overstriding can lead to injury because it stresses muscles in unnatural ways.
The amount of effort needed to complete a run, from the viewpoint of the runner. A faster run in cool temperatures and a slower run in hot temperatures could seem like the same effort to the runner.
Personal Best or PB